Computer And Technologies

Computer And Technologies: 2009

Tuesday, 8 December 2009

Job for C,C++ (telecom domain)

I am forwarding you the JDs as per our telecom. Kindly revert with some reference if any

· 1 - 6 yrs. Experience in software development in embedded/real- time platforms

· Responsible for development and integration of SW for GSM, GPRS and EDGE mobile handsets.

· Knowledge and expertise in the following areas GSM, GPRS, EDGE protocols (esp. in Layer 1).

· Software Engineering, RTOS, Embedded SW development using C and assembly (TI DSP).

· Programming language :C or C++ OS:RTOS or Linux environment

· You should hold a Bachelors or Masters Degree in Electrical/Electron ics/Computer Engineering

Send Resume to :- meenakshi.wizlead@



Genero victor consulting services

Ness Technologies Bangalore-QA 2-4 Yrs Of Exp in Automation(QTP)

Hi All ,
If anybody having the below skillset send me the resume

We have one QA open position in ELO Team . The position is for QA – Automation with Hands on QTP experience

Exp : 2-4 yrs

Refer your friends , Send me the resume to this ID.

Tuesday, 10 November 2009

Ho will you detect SNMP crash or core dump ?

How will you detect or how to debug where the core dump occures?
Please follow the steps:-

GDB is the GNU debugger, which is a terminal-based debugger. DDD is a graphical (GUI) front end to GDB.

Normal invocation

The simplest way to run an application under GDB is like so:

$ gdb /usr/local/sbin/snmpd
(gdb) run -f -Lo

The '-f' is necessary to prevent snmpd from forking into the background, and '-Lo' tells snmpd to send log messages to STDOUT (i.e. print them in the GDB console window).

Libtool invocation

Net-SNMP uses libtool while building it's applications. This means that sometimes the applications in the source/build directory are not actually binaries, but shell scripts. The libtool script does some magic so that the applications will run using the shared libraries in the build directory, instead of any libraries installed on the system. To run an application with GDB, you have to run GDB through libtool, like so:

$ ./libtool gdb agent/snmpd
(gdb) run -f -Lo

Getting a backtrace (aka stack trace)

Once you have got an application running under GDB, you can easily get a backtrace, which will display the sequence of functions that were called to arrive at the point where the debugger is currently stopped.

(gdb) bt
#0 0x10153d78 in init_snmp(type=0x101bb140 "snmp") at snmp_api.c:854
#1 0x1000524c in main(argc=3, argv=0x7fe04636) at snmpd.c:910
If an application has crashed, often it will leave a core file. This core file can usually be loaded into GDB to get debugging information after the fact. Simply add the path to the core file after the path to the application when starting GDB.
$ gdb /usr/local/sbin/snmpd /tmp/core.70816

Often this will tell you why the application crashed (e.g. SIGSEGV, aka signal 11). You can then get a backtrace to send to one of the mailing lists for interpretation.

If testing snmpd (or another application) from within the source tree, you'll need to run gdb via libtool:

$ ./libtool gdb agent/snmpd /tmp/core.70816

Debugger "DGB" Part-1


This is a very short introduction into using gdb. Target audience is a unix user which has a serious problem with some application and wants to help fixing the issue by giving detailed informations to the developer or maintainer of the application.

Debug information

Unix binaries can have debug informations attached. gdb can use the debug informations to provide more detailed informations (like function prototypes, source file names and line numbers, ...), thus it is generally a good idea to use a binary which has debug informations.

gcc has a command line switch (-g) which will make gcc write debug informations into object files and executables. It is common practice in the free software community to compile projects with debug info, but strip it off when installing with "make install". Thus you'll usually see a big file size difference between the executables within the source tree and the installed ones, and using the executables from the source tree with gdb gives better results.

Analyzing a segfault

The linux kernel is able to write a so called core dump if some application crashes. This core dump records the state of the process at the time of the crash. gdb can read such a core dump and get informations out of it.

Most distributions have core dumps disabled by default, thus you'll have to reenable them first. "ulimit -c unlimited" will do that for the current shell and all processes started from it. Check the bash manpage if you want to know more about the ulimit command.

The next time some application crashes with a segfault you'll see that the message "Segmentation fault" changed to "Segmentation fault (core dumped)" and you'll find a file named "core" or "" in the current directory. Note: You need also write access for the current directory, otherwise that isn't going to happen.

Now it is time to start gdb to see what exactly happened. The first argument for gdb should be the executable of the crashed application, the second the core dump written due to the crash. gdb will read alot of informations and will great you with a "(gdb)" prompt when it is done. The most useful piece of information for a developer is a so called stacktrace. Typing "bt" at the prompt asks gdb to print one (which you can mail to the developer). With "quit" you'll leave gdb.

Other ways to use gdb

You can start a application completely under gdb's control. To do that just type "gdb executable". At the gdb prompt type "run arguments" to start the application. If the application receives some signal gdb will give you a prompt asking for commands. You can also type Ctrl-C at any time to get a gdb prompt. The most useful gdb commands are:

print a stacktrace (as mentioned above).
continue running the application.
print expression
print the value of the specified expression. Can be used to inspect the value of certain variables for example, simply specify the variable name as expression
quit gdb.

It is also possibel to attach gdb to a already running process. This can be done with "gdb executable pid". gdb will attach to the process specified by the process id. That might be useful it some application seems to be stuck in a endless loop and you want to figure where exactly it hangs.

Advanced gdb debugging

If you start to do more things with gdb than just printing a stacktrace you likely notice some odd effects like not being able to inspect certain variables. That may happen due to compiler optimizations. If gcc decides to make a variable a register variable (i.e. never store it somewhere in memory) gdb will not see it. To avoid that rebuild the application you are going to debug without optimizations.

More common gdb commands are:

single step though the application.
break argument
set breakpoints, i.e. make the application stop (and gdb give you a prompt) once it reaches some specific point, some function for example.
watch expression
set a watchpoint, i.e. stop if expression has changed. Can be used to catch the line of code which modifies some variable for example.
up, down
walk up and down in the stack, to inspect variables in other places of the stack too, not just the current function.
gdb online help. Go read there all the details, the scope of this document ends just here :-)
BTW: a nice info manual for gdb is available too.

other useful debug tools

electric fence
malloc debugger, helps to catch typical memory management bugs like accessing already freed memory, buffer overflows, ...
Comes as library which can either explicitly linked against the application or loaded via LD_PRELOAD.
print a log of all (or selected) system calls some application performes.
One common programming mistake is missing error handling, not checking the return value of system calls for example. Instead of notifying the user with a message like "opening file foo failed with error bar" applications simply assume that opening the file worked and just crash later if it didn't. That kind of bug often can easily be found with strace because you'll see the system call return values in the strace log.
Of course strace is useful for alot of other purposes too.

Doubt in C programme

Dear all,

I have small doubt can anybody guide me how it's working and why?

It's give O/P as same code.
Please find the bellow code for your review.

int main()


char *s = "int main() { char *s = %c%s%c; printf(s,34, s, 34); ";

printf(s,34, s, 34);




Tuesday, 27 October 2009

Debian dailuse commands

amaresh@eOdissa:~/Documents/Test$ mkdir --help
Usage: mkdir [OPTION] DIRECTORY...
Create the DIRECTORY(ies), if they do not already exist.

Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.
-m, --mode=MODE set file mode (as in chmod), not a=rwx - umask
-p, --parents no error if existing, make parent directories as needed
-v, --verbose print a message for each created directory
-Z, --context=CTX set the SELinux security context of each created
directory to CTX
--help display this help and exit
--version output version information and exit

cd - Change working directory:-
cd - Change working directory,
cd :- will got respective dir
cd .. :- will go to one position dirctory to current dirctory
cd - :- will go to Old pwd from new pwd

Resize your Images Using ImageMagick @ deian linux

If you are using Linux and you need to resize a hundred images or so, you can certainly use Gimp, but that would be too much work. Consider ImageMagick set of graphic tools. You can install ImageMagick on Ubuntu by going to the Terminal and typing: “sudo apt-get install imagemagick.” Once the application is installed, all you need to do is go to your image directory and execute the following command:

mogrify -resize 900×600 *.jpg

This command will resize any image with a .jpg extension to a size of 900×600 pixels.

PS:- do backup before doing it.

Thursday, 8 October 2009

How files will share over internet via DROPBOX in Ubuntu ?

Dear all, is really a good tool to share any document with anyone over internet.

Steps to work :-
  1. Follow the Link
  2. download as per your OS, it's working in window, Mac and linux
  3. I have install in Linux (Ubuntu 9.04)
  4. Link for Ubuntu Help
  5. after finish up installation, open terminal and user this command "root@eOdissa:/home/amaresh# dropbox start -i
    Starting Dropbox...Done! "
  6. Look manual page "man dropbox" for more
  7. Open /etc/apt/source.list and add these bellow lines.
Yes! We have an unauthenticated repository for Ubuntu 9.04, 8.10, 8.04, and 7.10.

For Ubuntu 9.04, add the following lines to your /etc/apt/sources.list or equivalent:
deb jaunty main
deb-src jaunty main

For Ubuntu 8.10 add these lines:

deb intrepid main
deb-src intrepid main

For Ubuntu 8.04 you might want to add these lines instead:

deb hardy main
deb-src hardy main

And for Ubuntu 7.10, add these lines:

deb gutsy main
deb-src gutsy main

Then it work fine , you can share data upto 2GB in free

Tuesday, 22 September 2009

Urgent Openings for Embedded Software Engineers with min 1 yrs exp

Hi Vikas,

Please gothrough the below mail and suitable candidates with required skills only apply.
Forward your resume to :

Please find the below details for candidate profile and reply ASAP.

Embedded Software Design Engineer(Device Drivers). Position Code : ESYSHRD-01

Skill Sets Required:

1. Total two+ years of experience in embedded software design and development

2. Minimum 1+ years of experience in Linux porting onto 32 or 16 bit micro controllers. (ARM processor would be an added advantage)

3. Should have knowledge on developing and adding device drivers to Linux with kernel level programming, Various Boot loader implementation

4. Design expertise on microcontrollers using BSP’s, should have used various IDE’s and debugger tools

5. Should have worked on different communication protocols like SPI, I2C, UART, Ethernet and USB

6. Basic knowledge on Hardware design and development

7. Should have worked on C, C++, Embedded C/ VC++

8. Should be able to follow Embedded Design life cycle

9. If the candidate has worked on Linux with above mentioned skills with only one year of experience in the industry, he will be considered for an interview

Embedded Software Design Engineer(Device Applications). Position Code : ESYSHRD-02

Skill Sets Required:

1. Total two+ years of experience in embedded application software design and development

2. Minimum 1+ years of experience in application development on Linux 32 or 16 bit micro controllers platform. (ARM processor would be an added advantage)

3. Knowledge on implementing new applications on Linux platforms

4. Application development on microcontrollers using BSP’s, should have used various IDE’s and debugger tools

5. Should have worked on different communication protocols like SPI, I2C, UART, Ethernet and USB (Application level)

6. Basic knowledge on Hardware

7. Should have worked on C, C++, Embedded C/ VC++

8. Should be able to follow Software Design life cycle

9. If the candidate has worked on Linux with above mentioned skills with only one year of experience in the industry, he will be considered for an interview

white logo

Tuesday, 18 August 2009

Different Linux command @faced in Interview

>chage :-
chage (1) - change user password expiry information

amaresh@eOdissa-desktop:~$ chage -l amaresh
Last password change : Jul 08, 2009
Password expires : never
Password inactive : never
Account expires : never
Minimum number of days between password change : 0
Maximum number of days between password change : 99999
Number of days of warning before password expires : 7

seq (1) - print a sequence of numbers

amaresh@eOdissa-desktop:~$ seq 1 4
amaresh@eOdissa-desktop:~$ seq 1 2 6
amaresh@eOdissa-desktop:~$ seq 6
amaresh@eOdissa-desktop:~$ seq 1 3 9

>vmstat :-
vmstat (8) - Report virtual memory statistics

usage: vmstat [-V] [-n] [delay [count]]
-V prints version.
-n causes the headers not to be reprinted regularly.
-a print inactive/active page stats.
-d prints disk statistics
-D prints disk table
-p prints disk partition statistics
-s prints vm table
-m prints slabinfo
-S unit size
delay is the delay between updates in seconds.
unit size k:1000 K:1024 m:1000000 M:1048576 (default is K)
count is the number of updates.

Q:What command do you use to get the information about disk statistics?
Ans:- vmstat -d

amaresh@eOdissa-desktop:~$ vmstat -d
disk- ------------reads------------ ------------writes----------- -----IO------
total merged sectors ms total merged sectors ms cur sec
ram0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
ram1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
ram2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
ram3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
ram4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
ram5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
ram6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
ram7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
ram8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
ram9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
ram10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
ram11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
ram12 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
ram13 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
ram14 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
ram15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
sr0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
sda 129824 12599 1675591 430108 108073 14333 979288 2993424 0 36

Q:What command do you use to get the information about disk table?
Ans:-vmstat -D

amaresh@eOdissa-desktop:~$ vmstat -D
18 disks
5 partitions
129824 total reads
12599 merged reads
1675591 read sectors
430108 milli reading
107383 writes
13450 merged writes
966704 written sectors
2990880 milli writing
0 inprogress IO
366 milli spent IO

Q:What command do you use to get the information about no of forking ?
Ans:- vmstat -f

amaresh@eOdissa-desktop:~$ vmstat -f
11008 forks

>What command do you use to create swap space?

Thursday, 13 August 2009

Unix Interview questions (sed)

> remove first column of a space delimited txt
how to remove the first column of a space delimited txt file? there are 12+ columns... what is the cleanest way?

cut -d\ -f4-
cat | cut -d\ -f4-
sed -e 's/^[ \t]*//' filename

>delete 7th column in unix,

cut -f1-6,8- filename

>how to remove spaces in a string using sed.

`echo "$infilename" | sed 's/^ *//;s/ *$//`

>replace space or spaces in a line of a file with a single :

sed -e 's/\s/:/g'

>sed : remove whitespace

sed 's/ $//' file1.txt > file2.txt # Remove the last space at eol
sed 's/ *$//' file1.txt > file2.txt # Remove all spaces at eol

>To remove all whitespace (including tabs) from left to first word, enter:

cat | sed -e 's/^[ \t]*//'

* s/ : Substitute command ~ replacement for pattern (^[ \t]*) on each addressed line
* ^[ \t]* : Search pattern ( ^ - start of the line; [ \t]* match one or more blank spaces including tab)
* // : Replace (delete) all matched pattern

Monday, 10 August 2009

Some Network Linux Commands...

How will you get only TCP protocol status in a network?

Ans:- # netstat -t
root@eOdissa-desktop:/home/amaresh/Documents/Testing# netstat -t
Active Internet connections (w/o servers)
Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address Foreign Address State
tcp 0 0 eOdissa-desktop.l:59156 www-sf2p-a.facebook:www ESTABLISHED
tcp 0 0 eOdissa-desktop.l:59175 www-sf2p-a.facebook:www ESTABLISHED
tcp 0 0 eOdissa-desktop.l:57170 ESTABLISHED
tcp 0 0 eOdissa-desktop.l:45271 ESTABLISHED
tcp 0 0 eOdissa-desktop.l:41356 a96-17-8-64.deploy.:www ESTABLISHED
tcp 0 0 eOdissa-desktop.l:52631 a96-17-8-48.deploy.:www ESTABLISHED
tcp 0 0 eOdissa-desktop.l:41932 ord-qs2-n24.panther:www ESTABLISHED
tcp 0 0 eOdissa-desktop.l:54438 ESTABLISHED
tcp 0 0 eOdissa-desktop.l:54442 ESTABLISHED
tcp 0 0 eOdissa-desktop.l:56950 a96-17-69-27.deploy:www ESTABLISHED
tcp 0 0 eOdissa-desktop.l:56949 a96-17-69-27.deploy:www ESTABLISHED
tcp 0 0 eOdissa-desktop.l:56948 a96-17-69-27.deploy:www ESTABLISHED
tcp 0 0 eOdissa-desktop.l:56947 a96-17-69-27.deploy:www ESTABLISHED
tcp 0 0 eOdissa-desktop.l:53859 221x247x49x219.ap:34580 ESTABLISHED

How will you get only UDP protocol status in a network ?
Ans:- # netstat -u
root@eOdissa-desktop:/home/amaresh/Documents/Testing# netstat -u
Active Internet connections (w/o servers)
Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address Foreign Address State

How will you find only listening socket information?
Ans:- #netstat -l
root@eOdissa-desktop:/home/amaresh/Documents/Testing# netstat -r
Kernel IP routing table
Destination Gateway Genmask Flags MSS Window irtt Iface * U 0 0 0 tap0 * U 0 0 0 eth0
link-local * U 0 0 0 eth0 UG 0 0 0 tap0 UG 0 0 0 tap0
default UG 0 0 0 eth0

How will you get the class of any IP ?
Ans:- ipcals ( install apt-get install ipcalc in debian linux)

root@eOdissa-desktop:/home/amaresh/Documents/Testing# ipcalc
Address: 11000000.10101000.00000001. 10001111
Netmask: = 24 11111111.11111111.11111111. 00000000
Wildcard: 00000000.00000000.00000000. 11111111
Network: 11000000.10101000.00000001. 00000000
HostMin: 11000000.10101000.00000001. 00000001
HostMax: 11000000.10101000.00000001. 11111110
Broadcast: 11000000.10101000.00000001. 11111111
Hosts/Net: 254 Class C, Private Internet

Address: 11000000.10101000.0 0000000.00000001
Netmask: = 17 11111111.11111111.1 0000000.00000000
Wildcard: 00000000.00000000.0 1111111.11111111
Network: 11000000.10101000.0 0000000.00000000
HostMin: 11000000.10101000.0 0000000.00000001
HostMax: 11000000.10101000.0 1111111.11111110
Broadcast: 11000000.10101000.0 1111111.11111111
Hosts/Net: 32766 Class C, Private Internet

Subnets after transition from /17 to /18

Netmask: = 18 11111111.11111111.11 000000.00000000
Wildcard: 00000000.00000000.00 111111.11111111

Network: 11000000.10101000.00 000000.00000000
HostMin: 11000000.10101000.00 000000.00000001
HostMax: 11000000.10101000.00 111111.11111110
Broadcast: 11000000.10101000.00 111111.11111111
Hosts/Net: 16382 Class C, Private Internet

Network: 11000000.10101000.01 000000.00000000
HostMin: 11000000.10101000.01 000000.00000001
HostMax: 11000000.10101000.01 111111.11111110
Broadcast: 11000000.10101000.01 111111.11111111
Hosts/Net: 16382 Class C, Private Internet

Subnets: 2
Hosts: 32764

How will you monitor your LAN IP?
Ans:- iptraf (use apt-get install iptraf in debian linux)

How will you get your bandwidth usages of your interface by host ?
Ans:- iftop

Monday, 3 August 2009

JOb for .Net as well as C/C++


We have 8 positions for .Net in our team (2 – 6 yrs experience).
Kindly refer your friends who have worked on .net desktop applications.
WPF, WCF, Silverlight, XBAP will be added advantage.

Also we have 5 openings for linux, c, c++ with network programming skills ( 2- 6 yrs). Kindly refer for this as well.
Please forward this to your friends.

CV’s can be sent to

Thanks & Regards

Thursday, 30 July 2009

Openings for Lead/Dev in Network security domain, Pune

We are having openings for one of our company,Pune
Company:Keypair Technologies
Position:Tech Lead/Developer
EXp: 2-10 yrs,

About the Company:

Located in Santa Clara, CA, Key Pair Technologies is a VC funded startup in stealth mode to address business needs in the area of multi-form factor and protocol authentication. We are looking for highly motivated and talented Software Developers who are excited to work on networking and authentication technologies to solve business problems.

The ideal candidate has strong C/C++ development skills and has experience developing commercial Linux/Unix based products or appliances. You will join a team developing the leading edge distributed and high performance Linux based platform to enable strong multi-form factor and protocol authentication.

Applicant will have a strong application design and development background (preferably on Linux) and will have the ability to provide technical leadership in solving engineering problems. Just as important are non-technical life skills such as the ability to lead a project, meet deadlines, work with a team, and communicate clearly both verbally and on paper.


* Design, Detailed design,
* Development in Linux Kernel space and user space modules
* Design and development of unit test frame work
* Module and Inter-module API definition
* Module and system integration test plans
* Review of design documents, code and QA test plans
* Write and publish technical documentation, including specifications, theory of operation, test methodology and coverage, and time-critical factors on all implemented code modules.
* Interact with product verification to aid in testing and achieve high product quality
* Interact with product line managers to help clarify product feature definition and demonstrate features.

Experience and Skills:

* 3+ years of software development experience in Networking and Network security field.
* Demonstrated excellence in C and C++ design, patterns, coding, debugging and unit testing.
* Skills with scripting language such as GnuMake, Perl or Python
* Skills in L4-L7 packet processing, UDP/TCP sockets, multi-threading, process control, IPC, signals, system calls and multiprocessing in Linux environment using C/C++.
* Knowledge of application layer protocols such as HTTP, TLS, WS-* and technologies such as Open SSL is desired
* Knowledge of Authentication methodologies such as RADIUS, SAML, Kerberos is desired.
* Experience with large scale systems, scalability, availability and performance issues with Linux is desired.
* Ability to complete software projects on time in a fast paced environment.

Desirable Skills:

* Knowledge of Java/J2EE is desired.
* Ability to complete software projects on time in a fast paced environment

If you are interested please forward me your updated CV ASAP.
If not please ignore this mail.

Thanks and Regards,

Sailaja Reddy

Career One Solutions India Pvt Ltd

Banjara Classic,Road No.10,Banjara Hills,



Unix Shell scripting/ Contract Position

Prithvi is a US$ 279 million, global provider of IT Consulting and Engineering solutions company. Prithvi's decade of experience helps it to continually innovate and address latest imperatives in IT industry.
Our operations began in the year 1998 with our registered office in Hyderabad, India and US head office located in Pittsburgh (PA). Prithvi's global network of development centers and sales offices are in Europe, Middle East and Asia Pacific.
Prithvi Professional Services provides strategic and innovative staffing solutions. We offer a complete staffing solution to meet your ever-changing technology demand and highest level of customer satisfaction.
We specialize in worldwide IT solutions and engineering services staffing. We follow a stringent hiring, grooming and deployment process which includes technical tests and multiple rounds of interviews, to ensure an excellent match.

Requirement: Unix,Shellscripting
Company: Prithvi Information Solutions.
Location: Bangalore Or Pune ( candidate should ready to join in any location)
Position: contract

Should ready to join in 10 days

Rehman Shaik
HR Executive

Prithvi Information Solutions Ltd
10Q3A1, Cyber Towers
HITEC City, Madhapur
Hyderabad - 500 081

Desk: +091 - 040 - 66846019 XT:462

Sunday, 26 July 2009

Opening for C/C++ @Bangalore

---------- Forwarded message ----------
From: <>
Date: Wed, Jul 22, 2009 at 5:06 PM
Subject: Excellent opening with Varian, Pune


This is regarding the requirement with our client Varian Medical
Systems (, Pune.
Looking for Software developer with the following skill sets.

• 2 – 4 years years of experience in software product development
preferably in delivery of
healthcare products.
• Strong development skills with experience in C#.Net. Prior
experience on C++ / VC++ would be
a strong added advantage.
• Experience on COM, .Net Remoting & WCF would be an added
• Experience handling File I/O Streams, developing windows services
would be an added
• Knowledge of OOAD concepts and design patterns.

• Knowledge of DICOM Streams, DICOM Services or DICOM IODs would be
a strong added
• Experience on healthcare information systems like RIS, PACS, OIS
would be an added
• Experience developing oncology treatment consoles or medical image
acquisition consoles would
be an added advantage.

Best regards,

Prathibha I Consultant
CareerNet Consulting
Direct: +91-80-66550045; Mobile: +919379906813
Bangalore | Chennai | Delhi | Hyderabad | Mumbai | Pune
The sender of this email is registered with as Careernet
Technologies Pvt Ltd (, Salarpuria Soft Zone, 4th Floor 80/1, 80/2
Outer, Ring Road, BANGALORE, Karnataka - 560001) using
services. The responsibility of checking the authenticity of offers/
correspondence lies with you.

Thursday, 23 July 2009

Latest C++ Standard file

Dear all ,

Please find the latest C++ Standard files for your reference.

  1. Download C++ latest Std file
  2. another one



Wednesday, 22 July 2009

Latest C Standard file

Dear all ,

Please find the latest C Standard files for your reference.

Download C latest Std file



Tuesday, 21 July 2009

Basic Unix commands for beginners!!

This command allows you to change your login password. You are prompted to enter your current password, and then prompted (twice) to enter your new password. On Linux systems (like haribol) passwords should exceed 6 characters in length, and contain at least one non-alphanumeric character (such as #, %, *, ^, [, or @ etc.)

This command, as in DOS, changes directories. You can use .. to represent the directory above the current directory. You can use ~ to represent your root directory (also called your home or top directory). Example: cd maindir to move into the maindir directory, cd .. to move to the directory above, or cd ~ to move to your root directory.

This command tells you which directory you are currently working in. Your home directory is represented by the tilde ~ symbol. To go to your home directory from anywhere, type cd ~, however typing cd without the ~ also works on Linux systems.

This gives you a listing of all files in a directory. You can't tell which are files and which are directories.

ls -F
This shows which files are normal files (they have no special symbols at the end), which are directories (they end in a / character), which are links (they end in a @ symbol) and which are executables (they end in a * character). These special symbols are NOT part of the file name.

ls -l
"Long" format. Gives more details about files and directories in the current directory.

ls -a
Lists "hidden" files in current directory (those starting with a . character).

ls -la
Options may usually be combined. This particular combination would list both hidden and unhidden files in the long format

The "move" command is how you rename files. Example: mv oldfile.txt newfile.txt

Allows you to copy one or more files. Example: cp myfile.c backup.c

Deletes a file. BE CAREFUL!! There's no "undelete" command. Example: rm janfiles.*

Sends the contents of a file to stdout (usually the display screen). The name comes from "concatenate." Example: cat index.html

Like cat but displays a file one page at a time. Example: more long_file.txt

Counts the number of lines, words, and characters in a file. Example: wc essay.rtf

tail -n
Displays the last n lines of a file. Example: tail -5 myfile

head -n
Displays the first n lines of a file. Example: head -5 myfile

Creates a new directory, located below the present directory. (Use pwd first to check where you are!) Example: mkdir new_dir

Deletes a directory. Example: rmdir old_dir

The most important Unix command! It displays the manual pages for a chosen Unix command. Press [Enter] to advance one line, [Spacebar] to advance one page, and the [Q] key to quit and return to the Unix prompt. Example: man ls

man -k
Displays all Unix commands related to a given keyword. Example: man -k date will list all Unix commands whose man pages contain a reference to the word date.

Shows the current time and date.

Terminates the current login session, (and returns you to your telnet client, if that is how you established the session originally).

I/O Redirection

Input redirection. This allows you to take input from a file rather than stdin. Example: tr a z

Output redirection. This allows you to send output to a file rather than stdout. Example: ls -l >listing

Pipe. This allows you to connect stdout from one command with stdin of another. Example: ls -la | more
File Compression:-
    • gzip filename --- compresses files, so that they take up much less space. Usually text files compress to about half their original size, but it depends very much on the size of the file and the nature of the contents. There are other tools for this purpose, too (e.g. compress), but gzip usually gives the highest compression rate. Gzip produces files with the ending '.gz' appended to the original filename.
    • gunzip filename --- uncompresses files compressed by gzip.
    • gzcat filename --- lets you look at a gzipped file without actually having to gunzip it (same as gunzip -c). You can even print it directly, using gzcat filename | lpr
  • printing
    • lpr filename --- print. Use the -P option to specify the printer name if you want to use a printer other than your default printer. For example, if you want to print double-sided, use 'lpr -Pvalkyr-d', or if you're at CSLI, you may want to use 'lpr -Pcord115-d'. See 'help printers' for more information about printers and their locations.
    • lpq --- check out the printer queue, e.g. to get the number needed for removal, or to see how many other files will be printed before yours will come out
    • lprm jobnumber --- remove something from the printer queue. You can find the job number by using lpq. Theoretically you also have to specify a printer name, but this isn't necessary as long as you use your default printer in the department.
    • genscript --- converts plain text files into postscript for printing, and gives you some options for formatting. Consider making an alias like alias ecop 'genscript -2 -r \!* | lpr -h -Pvalkyr' to print two pages on one piece of paper.
    • dvips filename --- print .dvi files (i.e. files produced by LaTeX). You can use dviselect to print only selected pages.

Finding things

  • ff --- find files anywhere on the system. This can be extremely useful if you've forgotten in which directory you put a file, but do remember the name. In fact, if you use ff -p you don't even need the full name, just the beginning. This can also be useful for finding other things on the system, e.g. documentation.
  • grep string filename(s) --- looks for the string in the files. This can be useful a lot of purposes, e.g. finding the right file among many, figuring out which is the right version of something, and even doing serious corpus work. grep comes in several varieties (grep, egrep, and fgrep) and has a lot of very flexible options. Check out the man pages if this sounds good to you.

About other people

  • w --- tells you who's logged in, and what they're doing. Especially useful: the 'idle' part. This allows you to see whether they're actually sitting there typing away at their keyboards right at the moment.
  • who --- tells you who's logged on, and where they're coming from. Useful if you're looking for someone who's actually physically in the same building as you, or in some other particular location.
  • finger username --- gives you lots of information about that user, e.g. when they last read their mail and whether they're logged in. Often people put other practical information, such as phone numbers and addresses, in a file called .plan. This information is also displayed by 'finger'.
  • last -1 username --- tells you when the user last logged on and off and from where. Without any options, last will give you a list of everyone's logins.
  • talk username --- lets you have a (typed) conversation with another user
  • write username --- lets you exchange one-line messages with another user
  • elm --- lets you send e-mail messages to people around the world (and, of course, read them). It's not the only mailer you can use, but the one we recommend.

About your (electronic) self

  • whoami --- returns your username. Sounds useless, but isn't. You may need to find out who it is who forgot to log out somewhere, and make sure *you* have logged out.
  • finger & .plan files
    of course you can finger yourself, too. That can be useful e.g. as a quick check whether you got new mail. Try to create a useful .plan file soon. Look at other people's .plan files for ideas. The file needs to be readable for everyone in order to be visible through 'finger'. Do 'chmod a+r .plan' if necessary. You should realize that this information is accessible from anywhere in the world, not just to other people on turing.
  • passwd --- lets you change your password, which you should do regularly (at least once a year).
  • ps -u yourusername --- lists your processes. Contains lots of information about them, including the process ID, which you need if you have to kill a process. Normally, when you have been kicked out of a dialin session or have otherwise managed to get yourself disconnected abruptly, this list will contain the processes you need to kill. Those may include the shell (tcsh or whatever you're using), and anything you were running, for example emacs or elm. Be careful not to kill your current shell - the one with the number closer to the one of the ps command you're currently running. But if it happens, don't panic. Just try again :) If you're using an X-display you may have to kill some X processes before you can start them again. These will show only when you use ps -efl, because they're root processes.
  • kill PID --- kills (ends) the processes with the ID you gave. This works only for your own processes, of course. Get the ID by using ps. If the process doesn't 'die' properly, use the option -9. But attempt without that option first, because it doesn't give the process a chance to finish possibly important business before dying. You may need to kill processes for example if your modem connection was interrupted and you didn't get logged out properly, which sometimes happens.
  • quota -v --- show what your disk quota is (i.e. how much space you have to store files), how much you're actually using, and in case you've exceeded your quota (which you'll be given an automatic warning about by the system) how much time you have left to sort them out (by deleting or gzipping some, or moving them to your own computer).
  • du filename --- shows the disk usage of the files and directories in filename (without argument the current directory is used). du -s gives only a total.
  • last yourusername --- lists your last logins. Can be a useful memory aid for when you were where, how long you've been working for, and keeping track of your phonebill if you're making a non-local phonecall for dialling in.

Connecting to the outside world

  • nn --- allows you to read news. It will first let you read the news local to turing, and then the remote news. If you want to read only the local or remote news, you can use nnl or nnr, respectively. To learn more about nn type nn, then \tty{:man}, then \tty{=.*}, then \tty{Z}, then hit the space bar to step through the manual. Or look at the man page.
  • rlogin hostname --- lets you connect to a remote host
  • telnet hostname --- also lets you connect to a remote host. Use rlogin whenever possible.
  • ftp hostname --- lets you download files from a remote host which is set up as an ftp-server. This is a common method for exchanging academic papers and drafts. If you need to make a paper of yours available in this way, you can (temporarily) put a copy in /user/ftp/pub/TMP. For more permanent solutions, ask Emma. The most important commands within ftp are get for getting files from the remote machine, and put for putting them there (mget and mput let you specify more than one file at once). Sounds straightforward, but be sure not to confuse the two, especially when your physical location doesn't correspond to the direction of the ftp connection you're making. ftp just overwrites files with the same filename. If you're transferring anything other than ASCII text, use binary mode.
  • lynx --- lets you browse the web from an ordinary terminal. Of course you can see only the text, not the pictures. You can type any URL as an argument to the G command. When you're doing this from any Stanford host you can leave out the part of the URL when connecting to Stanford URLs. Type H at any time to learn more about lynx, and Q to exit.

Unix tutorials

There are a number of excellent Unix tutorials on the Web, including:

CVS History of the project

Some one asked me this Question.. which is really good one...

when I run this command:

"cvs history ProccessView"
the result looks like is:

O 2009-07-19 17:04 +0000 KalliMan
=.= localhost/*
O 2009-07-11 22:00 +0000 KalliMan ./ApiDialogsClient =./
ApiDialogsClient= localhost/./ApiDialogsClient
O 2009-07-11 15:31 +0000 KalliMan ./KUtilities =./
KUtilities= localhost/./KUtilities
O 2009-07-11 15:36 +0000 KalliMan ./KUtilities/Bin =./
KUtilities/Bin= localhost/./KUtilities/Bin
O 2009-07-11 21:51 +0000 KalliMan ./test =./
test= localhost/./test

Can somebody tells me what the ... is the meaning of these columns???
Answer of the above Question:--

Hi ,

O 2009-07-19 17:04 +0000 KalliMan =.= localhost/*

From above :

2009-07-19 (2nd column) is

17:04 (3rd column ) is modules updated time on your server.

+0000 (4th Column) is Leading value

KalliMan (5th column) is User name

6th column Module or project name

7th column file name

8th column :--- server/ module position either <remote> i,e 192.168.x.x or i,e

history output

`history' prints a line for each selected history record. Each line
begins with a character indicating the record type (*note history
options::), followed by a timestamp (in the format `YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM
ZZZZ'), then the name of the user who performed the action. The
remainder of the line depends on the record type:

The relative path to the directory in the repository; then the
description of the tag in the format `[NAME:OPT]' where NAME is
the tag name and OPT is `D' for `tag -d', the specified revision
for `tag -r', the specified date for `tag -D', or `A' for a plain

`F', `E', `O'
The tag/revision/date checked out, if any, enclosed in `[' and `]';
the relative path to the directory in the repository, if any; the
associated module name, enclosed in `=' and `='; then the absolute
path to the local working directory or `'.

`W', `U', `P', `C', `G', `M', `A', `R'
The revision checked out; the file name; the relative path to the
directory in the repository, if any; the associated module name,
enclosed in `=' and `='; then the absolute path to the local
working directory or `'.

`~' at the beginning of a working directory means the user's home
directory. `*' at the end of a repository or working directory means
the associated module name.

A.13.3 history examples

$ cvs history -e

A 2009-07-21 20:21 +0000 bach 1.1 tc.1 yoyodyne/tc/man == ~/tc/man
M 2009-07-21 20:22 +0000 bach 1.2 backend.c yoyodyne/tc == ~/tc
M 2009-07-21 20:27 +0000 bach 1.5 frontend.c yoyodyne/tc == ~/tc
T 2009-07-21 20:27 +0000 bach yoyodyne/tc [rel_0_3:A]
O 2009-07-21 20:28 +0000 cedar [rel_0_1] yoyodyne/* =tc= /*
C 2009-07-21 20:29 +0000 cedar 1.3 driver.c yoyodyne/tc ==
U 2009-07-21 20:29 +0000 cedar 1.5 frontend.c yoyodyne/tc ==
F 2009-07-21 20:31 +0000 bach =yoyodyne= ~/*
E 2009-07-21 20:33 +0000 bach [rel_0_3] yoyodyne/tc =.= /foo/*
O 2009-07-21 20:37 +0000 bach yoyodyne/* =tc= ~/*
R 2009-07-21 20:37 +0000 bach 1.2 test2.t yoyodyne/tc/testing == ~/tc/testing
E 2009-07-21 20:38 +0000 bach [2009.] yoyodyne/* =tc= /foo

Have a look my processview :- (remote server)

root@eOdissa-desktop:/home/amaresh/Vecima/Vcom_Task/wingmax# cvs history ProccessView
O 2009-07-13 10:58 +0000 amareshcd kernel-2.6 =kernel-2.6= /*
O 2009-07-13 12:54 +0000 amareshcd libadapt =libadapt= /*
O 2009-07-13 12:54 +0000 amareshcd mac_01_alpha =mac_01_alpha= /*
O 2009-07-13 10:12 +0000 amareshcd othersrc =othersrc= /*
O 2009-07-13 12:54 +0000 amareshcd wingmax/* =src= /*
O 2009-07-13 10:58 +0000 amareshcd wavesat =wavesat= /*
O 2009-07-13 10:09 +0000 amareshcd wingmax =wingmax= <remote>/*

Have a look this command “ls -ltr “ you will get good idea.

wingmax# ls -ltr
total 148
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 2035 2007-06-13 22:51
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1911 2008-01-09 23:03 README.txt
-rwxr-x--- 1 root root 3059 2008-11-26 04:44
-rwxr-x--- 1 root root 35485 2008-12-18 13:50 Makefile
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 8 2009-07-13 10:16 VERSION
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 4096 2009-07-13 15:39 doc

Why are you giving "cvs history ProccessView" ?

just give "cvs history" you will get same result.

if you will give " cvs history " then you will not get different o/p as bellow:--

cvs history
O 2009-07-13 10:58 +0000 amareshcd kernel-2.6 =kernel-2.6= /*
O 2009-07-13 12:54 +0000 amareshcd libadapt =libadapt= /*
O 2009-07-13 12:54 +0000 amareshcd mac_01_alpha =mac_01_alpha= /*
O 2009-07-13 10:12 +0000 amareshcd othersrc =othersrc= /*
O 2009-07-13 12:54 +0000 amareshcd wingmax/* =src= /*
O 2009-07-13 10:58 +0000 amareshcd wavesat =wavesat= /*
O 2009-07-13 10:09 +0000 amareshcd wingmax =wingmax= /*



Wednesday, 15 July 2009

Current Requirment - Software Engineer / Senior Software Engineer

Dear All,

We have requirements for the post of Software Engineers / Senior Software Engineers. We would like you to refer your friends, acquaintances or people you know who will suit this profile.

We are conducting a walk-in drive on the coming 20th, 21st, 22nd of July ’09 ( Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday), for candidates referred by you.

The job description is as below.

Designation : Software Engineer / Senior Software Engineer

Experience Level - 2 - 4 Years

1. Strong technical knowledge in ASP.NET, C#, JavaScript

2. Strong technical knowledge in SQL Server 2005 / Oracle

3. Experience in developing Enterprise Application


Round I - Technical Written Test and Aptitude Test (20th, 21st and 22nd of July’09)

Round II - Technical Interview - Level I

Round III - Technical Interview - Level II

Round IV - HR Round

Round V - Interview with MD

Post clearance of the written test the technical rounds will be arranged for later in the month.

Resumes to be forwarded to

Interview Timings : 2.00 PM - 7.00 PM

Please forward this mail to your friends and acquaintances, and help us make this talent search a great success!!

Request you to convey the Job Description as well as the Venue details to your referred candidates. Thank you for your co-operation as always.

Thanks & Regards,

Jai Jagadeesha

91-80-41464322-23 Extn-207

tel 888-O-TECH-84 | tel 215-231-9800 | fax 215-231-9848
2000 Market Street, Suite 1840 , Philadelphia , PA 19103

tel 91-80-41464322–23 | fax 91-80-41464321 |

Zam Zam Complex, First Floor, 26 Infantry Road , Bangalore 560001, India

Friday, 10 July 2009

Getting Back to a Pure Gnome on Ubuntu from Kbuntu and vice Versa!

If you want to remove kbuntu, then follow the bellow steps :-

If you used aptitude to install other desktop environments, you will not need this tutorial, as you can just type bellow command into your terminal/konsol to get back to your "pure Gnome."

sudo aptitude remove kubuntu-desktop
sudo aptitude remove xubuntu-desktop

If you want to remove Ubuntu, then follow the bellow steps:-

If you used aptitude to install other desktop environments, you will not need this tutorial, as you can just type bellow command into your terminal/konsol to get back to your "pure KDE."

sudo aptitude remove ubuntu-desktop
sudo aptitude remove xubuntu-desktop

Remove Kubuntu
Paste this command into the terminal:

sudo apt-get remove adept akregator amarok amarok-xine ark arts artsbuilder avahi-daemon bogofilter bogofilter-bdb bogofilter-common debtags enscript flac gtk2-engines-gtk-qt gwenview imagemagick k3b kaddressbook kaffeine kaffeine-xine kamera karm katapult kate kaudiocreator kcontrol kcron kde-guidance kde-style-lipstik kde-systemsettings kdeadmin-kfile-plugins kdebase-bin kdebase-data kdebase-kio-plugins kdebluetooth kdegraphics-kfile-plugins kdelibs-bin kdelibs-data kdelibs4c2a kdemultimedia-kfile-plugins kdemultimedia-kio-plugins kdenetwork-filesharing kdenetwork-kfile-plugins kdepasswd kdepim-kio-plugins kdepim-kresources kdepim-wizards kdeprint kdesktop kdm kdnssd keep kfind kghostview khelpcenter kicker kio-apt kio-locate kitchensync klaptopdaemon klipper kmail kmailcvt kmenuedit kmilo kmix kmplayer-base kmplayer-konq-plugins knetworkconf knotes koffice-data koffice-libs konq-plugins konqueror konqueror-nsplugins konsole kontact konversation kooka kopete korganizer kpdf kpersonalizer kpf kppp krdc krfb krita krita-data kscd kscreensaver kscreensaver-xsavers ksmserver ksnapshot ksplash ksplash-engine-moodin ksvg ksysguard ksysguardd ksystemlog ktorrent kubuntu-artwork-usplash kubuntu-default-settings kubuntu-desktop kubuntu-docs kubuntu-konqueror-shortcuts kwalletmanager kwin kwin-style-crystal language-selector-qt latex-xft-fonts libakode2 libarts1-akode libarts1c2a libartsc0 libavahi-core4 libavahi-qt3-1 libdaemon0 libdbus-qt-1-1c2 libflac++5c2 libgadu3 libgpgme11 libgsl0 libjpeg-progs libk3b2 libkcal2b libkcddb1 libkdepim1a libkipi0 libkleopatra1 libkmime2 libkonq4 libkpimexchange1 libkpimidentities1 libkscan1 libksieve0 libktnef1 liblockdev1 libmimelib1c2a libmodplug0c2 libmpcdec3 libnss-mdns liboggflac3 libopenexr2c2a libpcre3 libpoppler1-qt libpythonize0 libqt-perl libqt3-mt librsync1 libruby1.8 libsamplerate0 libsensors3 libskim0 libsmokeqt1 libtdb1 libtunepimp2c2a libxcomposite1 libxine-main1 libxvmc1 menu-xdg perl-suid poster postfix procmail psutils pykdeextensions python-kde3 python2.4-dev python2.4-kde3 python2.4-qt3 python2.4-sip4-qt3 qca-tls qobex rdiff-backup ruby ruby1.8 scim-qtimm skim speedcrunch ssl-cert vorbis-tools wlassistant

Remove Xubuntu
Paste this command into the terminal:

sudo apt-get remove abiword abiword-common abiword-help abiword-plugins anthy gnumeric-common gnumeric-gtk gqview gtk2-engines-xfce im-switch latex-xft-fonts libaiksaurus-1.2-0c2a libaiksaurus-1.2-data libaiksaurusgtk-1.2-0c2a libanthy0 libbeecrypt6 libchewing-data libchewing2 libenchant1c2a libexo-0.3-0 libgdome2-0 libgdome2-cpp-smart0c2a libgoffice-1-common libgoffice-gtk-1-2 libgsf-gnome-1-113 libgtkmathview0c2a libjpeg-progs libmodplug0c2 libots0 libpcre3 librpm4 libt1-5 libtagc0 libthunar-vfs-1 libwpd-stream8c2a libxcomposite1 libxfce4mcs-client3 libxfce4mcs-manager3 libxfce4util4 libxfcegui4-4 libxine-main1 libxvmc1 mousepad mozilla-thunderbird orage rpm scim-anthy scim-chewing scim-hangul scim-pinyin thunar thunar-media-tags-plugin xarchiver xfburn xfce4-appfinder xfce4-battery-plugin xfce4-clipman-plugin xfce4-cpugraph-plugin xfce4-fsguard-plugin xfce4-icon-theme xfce4-mailwatch-plugin xfce4-mcs-manager xfce4-mcs-plugins xfce4-mixer xfce4-mixer-alsa xfce4-mount-plugin xfce4-netload-plugin xfce4-panel xfce4-quicklauncher-plugin xfce4-screenshooter-plugin xfce4-session xfce4-systemload-plugin xfce4-taskmanager xfce4-terminal xfce4-utils xfce4-verve-plugin xfce4-weather-plugin xfce4-xkb-plugin xfdesktop4 xfmedia xfprint4 xfwm4 xfwm4-themes xscreensaver xubuntu-artwork-usplash xubuntu-default-settings xubuntu-desktop xubuntu-docs

Remove Ubuntu
Paste this command into the terminal:

sudo apt-get remove acpi acpi-support acpid alacarte alsa-base alsa-utils anacron apmd avahi-daemon bc ca-certificates consolekit cupsys cupsys-bsd cupsys-client cupsys-driver-gutenprint dc dcraw desktop-file-utils doc-base eog evince fast-user-switch-applet file-roller foomatic-db foomatic-db-engine foomatic-filters gcalctool gconf-editor gdebi gdm gedit genisoimage ghostscript-x gimp-python gnome-about gnome-app-install gnome-applets gnome-control-center gnome-icon-theme gnome-media gnome-menus gnome-netstatus-applet gnome-nettool gnome-panel gnome-pilot-conduits gnome-power-manager gnome-session gnome-spell gnome-system-monitor gnome-system-tools gnome-terminal gnome-themes gnome-utils gnome-volume-manager gstreamer0.10-alsa gstreamer0.10-plugins-base-apps gstreamer0.10-pulseaudio gtk2-engines gtk2-engines-pixbuf gucharmap hal hotkey-setup hwtest-gtk language-selector launchpad-integration lftp libgl1-mesa-glx libglut3 libgnome2-perl libgnomevfs2-bin libgnomevfs2-extra libpt-1.10.10-plugins-v4l libpt-1.10.10-plugins-v4l2 libsasl2-modules libxp6 metacity nautilus nautilus-cd-burner nautilus-sendto notification-daemon openprinting-ppds pnm2ppa powermanagement-interface pulseaudio pulseaudio-esound-compat readahead rss-glx screen screensaver-default-images scrollkeeper seahorse smbclient software-properties-gtk ssh-askpass-gnome synaptic system-config-printer-gnome tangerine-icon-theme tsclient ttf-bitstream-vera ttf-dejavu-core ttf-freefont ubuntu-artwork ubuntu-sounds unzip update-manager update-notifier usplash usplash-theme-ubuntu x-ttcidfont-conf xdg-user-dirs xdg-user-dirs-gtk xkb-data xorg xscreensaver-data xscreensaver-gl xterm yelp zenity zip app-install-data-commercial apport-gtk avahi-autoipd bluez-cups bluez-gnome bluez-utils bogofilter brasero brltty brltty-x11 bug-buddy cdparanoia compiz contact-lookup-applet cups-pdf deskbar-applet displayconfig-gtk diveintopython dvd+rw-tools ekiga espeak evolution evolution-exchange evolution-plugins evolution-webcal example-content f-spot firefox firefox-gnome-support foo2zjs foomatic-db-hpijs fortune-mod gcc gimp gimp-gnomevfs gnome-accessibility-themes gnome-games gnome-mag gnome-orca gnome-screensaver gnome-user-guide gvfs-fuse hal-cups-utils hplip im-switch jockey-gtk landscape-client laptop-detect libdeskbar-tracker libgl1-mesa-dri libnss-mdns libpam-gnome-keyring linux-headers-generic make min12xxw mousetweaks nautilus-share network-manager-gnome onboard pidgin pidgin-otr powernowd pulseaudio-module-gconf pulseaudio-module-hal pulseaudio-module-x11 pxljr rhythmbox scim scim-bridge-agent scim-bridge-client-gtk scim-gtk2-immodule sound-juicer splix tomboy totem totem-mozilla tracker tracker-search-tool transmission-gtk ttf-arabeyes ttf-arphic-uming ttf-indic-fonts-core ttf-kochi-gothic ttf-kochi-mincho ttf-lao ttf-malayalam-fonts ttf-thai-tlwg ttf-unfonts-core ubufox ubuntu-docs vinagre vino wodim wvdial xcursor-themes xdg-utils xsane

Wednesday, 8 July 2009

How to Change your Ubuntu Festiy to Hardy or Jaunty Ubuntu Repository?


I faced the same as i was unable to update any software and faced like bellow error,

root@eOdissa-desktop:/home/amaresh# apt-get install update
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
E: Couldn't find package update
Solution for this:--

  1. Anyway, here it is, for you to download the source.list. You might want to open it in a text editor, so it doesn’t open Synaptic for you. This list uses the Norwegian mirrors. Just add from “3rd party repos” and down.
  2. then do "gedit /etc/apt/source.list"
  3. replace the content of source.list with downloaded file
  4. reboot the system
  5. goto System --> Administration --> Software source ; then click all check post and change the repository to "main server"
  6. wait for upgrading ...
  7. It will like bellow...
Command Line Interface

Just add the following lines to your /etc/apt/sources.list :

For Ubuntu 9.04 (Jaunty Jackalope):
deb jaunty-backports main universe multiverse restricted

For Ubuntu 8.10 (Intrepid Ibex):
deb intrepid-backports main universe multiverse restricted

For Ubuntu 8.04 (Hardy Heron):
deb hardy-backports main universe multiverse restricted

For Ubuntu 6.06 (Dapper Drake):
deb dapper-backports main universe multiverse restricted

After refreshing the package manager's cache, packages from the backport repositories will now be available for installation.

Go to System > Administration > Software Sources

Then, make sure the main, universe, restricted, and multiverse sources are all checked (or ticked). In most cases, you will not need the source code or CD-ROM/DVD sources.

I believe in Ubuntu 9.04 these should be all checked by default.

You should also choose to download from your country's server in the Download from section. This puts a little less strain on the main Canonical servers.

Next, click on the Third-Party Software tab and click Add

In the APT line paste in

deb jaunty free non-free
if you're using Ubuntu 9.04.

For Ubuntu 8.10, you should substitute intrepid for jaunty
For Ubuntu 8.04, you should substitute hardy for jaunty

Then click Add Source

Click the Close button (next to Revert at the lower-right-hand corner). You'll be prompted to Reload. Go ahead and do so.

Some information will then be downloaded letting your Ubuntu installation know what new software is available for installation.

You will get an error message saying that the public key isn't available for the Medibuntu repositories. That's okay. We're about to fix that.

Go to System > Administration > Synaptic Package Manager

When Synaptic Package Manager opens, click on Search at the top-right corner and when the Find dialogue box appears, search for the word medibuntu and then click Search.

When you find the medibuntu-keyring package in the results, right-click it and select Mark for Installation. Then click Mark again to confirm.

Then click Apply and Apply again to confirm.

Once the keyring is installed,

More about repositories

So what are all of these different repositories anyway? Ubuntu Linux has a commitment to open source software, and so for mainly philosophical (and secondarily sometimes legal) reasons, it doesn't include a lot of proprietary software by default. The Ubuntu development team also can offer full support for only the official Ubuntu repositories (Main and Restricted).

You can read on the Ubuntu website more in-depth descriptions of the different types of repositories. Here's a quick low-down, though:

  • Main: Freely licensed software that's officially supported.
  • Restricted: Not exactly freely licensed software that is pretty essential to getting a lot of popular configurations working.
  • Universe: A lot of freely licensed software that's packaged by the community and not officially supported.
  • Multiverse: Not freely licensed software, also put together by the Ubuntu community and not officially supported.
  • Medibuntu: Software not included in the other repositories for various reasons.
There is also a volunteer group that puts together a lot of .deb packages for software not in the repositories or of newer versions than are currently in the repositories. Their software can be found at GetDeb.